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Digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and digestive glands. Alimentary Canal: The alimentary canal is a straight tube from mouth to anus. It is lined by. The lancelets, also known as amphioxi (singular, amphioxus), consist of about 32 species of fish-like marine. The common lancelet, Branchiostoma lanceolatum, has been recorded from the . The digestive system of Branchiostoma consists of an alimentary canal and.

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The animal swims spirally about its axis. In his scheme See Fig. The circulatory system does resemble that of primitive fish in its general layout, but is much simpler, and does not include a heart. Goodrich gave a detailed description of the excretory organs of Branchiostoma.

Series B, Biological Sciences. The phagocytic epithelial cells of the diverticulum produce large numbers of lysosomes to support their intracellular digestive function. Ikuta T, et al.

Digestive Systems of Branchiostoma and Ascidia | Zoology

Ly, lysosomes; Lu, lumen; As, apical side. ParaHox gene expression in the polychaete annelid Capitella sp.

The epithelium ectoderm of the oral hood is digedtive to form six to eight pairs of finger-like folds, each having a ciliated groove borded by ciliated ridge. An endostyle is present on the floor of the pharynx. The terminal end of the primary gill-rod is forked and those of the secondary gill-rods are simple, i. The pharynx is a digestve elaborate structure which occupies more than half of the total surface area of the body.

The pharynx is a large, laterally compressed sac occupying nearly one-half anterior part of the body. There are no blood cells, and no haemoglobin. It is also a part where fat is deposited.

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Second, the suppression subtractive hybridization SSH results reveal that the gene expression profiles of amphhioxus diverticulum and gut epithelial cells are similar, but that the diverticulum can express greater numbers of functional genes than the gut. Putnam NH, et al. It is devoid of cilia and gill-slits. The oral cirri and the velar tentacles are beset with modified sensory papillae which act as the chemoreceptors and tactile receptors.

The concept of annelidan relationship of Branchiostoma was mainly sponsored by Dohrn, Semper and Minot. Retrieved 7 December In sjstem the two limbs — namely cardiac and pyloric — are almost amphoxus along the lesser curvature and appear as a wide sac. The small arrowheads mark the algal cells. The lateral wall of the pharynx is perforated by obliquely arranged vertical apertures — the gill-slits see Fig.

The life of vertebrates3rd edn Oxford, UK: These cirri are ciliated and also bear sensory papillae. Ascidiacea sea squirts Appendicularia larvaceans Thaliacea pyrosomes, salps, doliolids. The larva with eight pairs of digesyive remains unchanged for a considerable period and many paired gill-slits appear on the pharyngeal wall as a result of subdivision of these gill-slits. It acts as a sphincter to open and close the mouth see Fig.

They are distributed in shallow and coastal temperate as far north as Norway [3]subtropical and tropical seas around the world, usually found half-buried in sand.

Urochordata and Cephalochordata – Chordata: The body is distinguishable into the body proper and definite postanal tail. The pharyngeal wall and the body wall are connected by trabeculae Fig.

Phagocytic intracellular digestion in amphioxus (Branchiostoma)

The left embryonic coelomic cavity of the region becomes reduced to form the pit of Hatschek of the pf. From the atrium the gametes escape to the exterior through the atriopore along with the water current.


The phenomenon of phagocytosis is attested by the fact that carmine particles, after ingestion into the diverticulum, are taken inside the cells. Among these immune genes, lysozyme can present in the cytoplasmic granules to destroy Gram-positive bacteria [ 41 ], VCBPs can present an adaptive-like immune character by exhibiting high levels of polymorphism [ 16 — 19 ], Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein can bind to lipopolysaccharides to elicit immune responses and alpha2-macroglobulin can prevent cell lysis by inactivating various proteinases [ 24 ].

Photosensitive cells enclosed by a cup of pigment granules eyespots are distributed on the spinal cord and remain oriented in different directions. Such a portion of the gill-bar which encloses the coelom is called primary dugestive. The peripharyngeal bands also collect and pass to the epipharyngeal groove any food particles which fall out of the water current at the extreme anterior end of the pharynx where no gill-clefts are present.

In Ascidia, mouth is situated at the centre of the velum placed in the posterior end of the oral funnel.

Digestive enzymes are secreted by the epithelial cells of the gut and midgut diverticulum. The overwhelming majority of expressed gene markers belong to three families: