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In other words, the Softmax classifier is never fully happy with mas scores it produces: We stretch the image pixels into a column and perform matrix multiplication to get the scores for each class.

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We will then cast this as an optimization problem in which we will minimize the loss function with respect to the parameters of the score function. In other words, we wish to encode some preference for a certain set of weights W over others to remove this ambiguity. Wireless card – 2231d view. That is, the full Multiclass SVM loss becomes:. The issue is that this set of W is not necessarily unique: Jax, making good predictions on the training set is equivalent to minimizing the loss.

Similarly, the car classifier seems to have merged several modes into a single template which has to identify cars from all sides, and of all colors. Hard Drive 1 TB. In practice, SVM and Softmax are usually comparable.

Otherwise the loss will be zero.

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For example, the score for the j-th class is the j-th element: As a quick note, in the examples above we used the raw pixel values which range from [0…]. Where the steps taken are to exponentiate and normalize to sum to 231e. Interpretation of linear classifiers as template matching.


This can intuitively be thought of as a feature: Therefore, the exact value of the margin between the scores e. Integrated audio is not available if a sound card is installed.

Dividing large numbers can be numerically unstable, so it is important to use a normalization trick. Intel Pentium G Skylake 3. We now saw one way to take a dataset of images and map each one to class scores based on a set of parameters, and we saw two examples of loss functions that we can use to measure the quality of 231x predictions.

Hence, the probabilities computed by the Softmax classifier are better thought of as confidences where, similar to the SVM, the ordering of the scores is interpretable, but the absolute numbers or their differences technically are not. The demo visualizes the loss functions discussed in this section using a mmax 3-way classification 23d 2D data.

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In the 231f interpretation, we are therefore minimizing the negative log likelihood of the correct class, which can be interpreted as performing Maximum Likelihood Estimation MLE. However, these scenarios are not equivalent to a Softmax classifier, which would accumulate a much higher loss for the scores [10, 9, 9] than for [10,].

In this module we will start out with arguably the simplest possible function, a linear mapping: Europe, Middle East, Africa. For in-depth feature assistance, refer to the help section in the software or on the software vendor’s Web site.

As we will see later in the class, this effect can improve the generalization performance of the classifiers on test images and lead to less overfitting.


Compared to the Softmax classifier, the SVM is a more local objective, which could be thought of either as a bug or a feature. The demo also jumps ahead a bit and performs the optimization, which we will discuss in full detail in the next section. We mention these interpretations to help your intuitions, but the full details of this derivation are beyond the scope of this class.

The tradeoff between the data loss and the regularization loss in the objective. Since we defined the score of each class as a weighted sum of all image pixels, each class score is a linear function over this space. Notice that a linear classifier computes the score of a class as a weighted sum of all of its pixel values across all 3 of its color channels.

In both cases we compute the same score vector f e. Another way to think of it is that we are still effectively doing Nearest Neighbor, but instead of having thousands of training images we are only using a single image per class although we will learn it, and it does not necessarily have to be one of the images in the training setand we use the negative inner product as the distance instead of the L1 or L2 distance.

In particular, this set of weights seems convinced that it’s looking 2231d a dog. In other words, the cross-entropy objective wants the predicted distribution to have all of its mass on the correct answer.